The national installation standard for home fire sprinklers is NFPA 13D, Standard for Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes.
Compliance with NFPA 13D is intended to prevent injury, life loss and property damage. The standard requires at least 10 minutes of sprinkler water on the fire in its initial stage of development. That controls the fire early, giving residents the time to safely escape and the fire department time to respond. A typical home fire will be controlled and may even be extinguished by the time the fire department arrives.
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NFPA 13D only requires sprinklers to be installed in living areas. The standard does not require sprinklers in smaller bathrooms or closets, pantries, garages or carports, attached open structures, attics, and other concealed non-living spaces.
The local building authority where you build may have requirements that exceed NFPA 13D, so you’ll want to determine local requirements ahead of time.
Two common types of fire sprinkler layouts are acceptable under NFPA 13D – stand-alone (or independent) and multi-purpose combined (or network).